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Routes' Matching Syntax

Most applications will use static routes like /about and dynamic routes like /users/:userId like we just saw in Dynamic Route Matching, but Vue Router has much more to offer!


For the sake of simplicity, all route records are omitting the component property to focus on the path value.

Custom regex in params

When defining a param like :userId, we internally use the following regex ([^/]+) (at least one character that isn't a slash /) to extract params from URLs. This works well unless you need to differentiate two routes based on the param content. Imagine two routes /:orderId and /:productName, both would match the exact same URLs, so we need a way to differentiate them. The easiest way would be to add a static section to the path that differentiates them:

const routes = [
  // matches /o/3549
  { path: '/o/:orderId' },
  // matches /p/books
  { path: '/p/:productName' },

But in some scenarios, we don't want to add that static section /o or /p. However, orderId is always a number while productName can be anything so we can specify a custom regex for a param in parentheses:

const routes = [
  // /:orderId -> matches only numbers
  { path: '/:orderId(\\d+)' },
  // /:productName -> matches anything else
  { path: '/:productName' },

Now, going to /25 will match /:orderId while going to anything else will match /:productName. The order of the routes array doesn't even matter!


Make sure to escape backslashes (\) like we did with \d (becomes \\d) to actually pass the backslash character in a string in JavaScript.

Repeatable params

If you need to match routes with multiple sections like /first/second/third, you should mark a param as repeatable with * (0 or more) and + (1 or more):

const routes = [
  // /:chapters -> matches /one, /one/two, /one/two/three, etc
  { path: '/:chapters+' },
  // /:chapters -> matches /, /one, /one/two, /one/two/three, etc
  { path: '/:chapters*' },

This will give you an array of params instead of a string and will also require you to pass an array when using named routes:

// given { path: '/:chapters*', name: 'chapters' },
router.resolve({ name: 'chapters', params: { chapters: [] } }).href
// produces /
router.resolve({ name: 'chapters', params: { chapters: ['a', 'b'] } }).href
// produces /a/b

// given { path: '/:chapters+', name: 'chapters' },
router.resolve({ name: 'chapters', params: { chapters: [] } }).href
// throws an Error because `chapters` is empty

These can also be combined with a custom regex by adding them after the closing parentheses:

const routes = [
  // only match numbers
  // matches /1, /1/2, etc
  { path: '/:chapters(\\d+)+' },
  // matches /, /1, /1/2, etc
  { path: '/:chapters(\\d+)*' },

Sensitive and strict route options

By default, all routes are case-insensitive and match routes with or without a trailing slash. e.g. a route /users matches /users, /users/, and even /Users/. This behavior can be configured with the strict and sensitive options, they can be set both at a router and route level:

const router = createRouter({
  history: createWebHistory(),
  routes: [
    // will match /users/posva but not:
    // - /users/posva/ because of strict: true
    // - /Users/posva because of sensitive: true
    { path: '/users/:id', sensitive: true },
    // will match /users, /Users, and /users/42 but not /users/ or /users/42/
    { path: '/users/:id?' },
  strict: true, // applies to all routes

Optional parameters

You can also mark a parameter as optional by using the ? modifier (0 or 1):

const routes = [
  // will match /users and /users/posva
  { path: '/users/:userId?' },
  // will match /users and /users/42
  { path: '/users/:userId(\\d+)?' },

Note that * technically also marks a parameter as optional but ? parameters cannot be repeated.

If the route segment contains more than just an optional parameter, it won't match a path without the trailing slash. For example:

  • /users/:uid?-:name? won't match /users, only /users/- or even /users/-/
  • /users/:uid(\\d+)?:name? won't match /users, only /users/, /users/2, /users/2/, etc

You can play around with the matching syntax in the playground


If you need to dig how your routes are transformed into a regex to understand why a route isn't being matched or, to report a bug, you can use the path ranker tool. It supports sharing your routes through the URL.

Released under the MIT License.