Navigation Guards

As the name suggests, the navigation guards provided by vue-router are primarily used to guard navigations either by redirecting it or canceling it. There are a number of ways to hook into the route navigation process: globally, per-route, or in-component.

Remember that params or query changes won't trigger enter/leave navigation guards. You can either watch the $route object to react to those changes, or use the beforeRouteUpdate in-component guard.

Global Guards

You can register global before guards using router.beforeEach:

const router = new VueRouter({ ... })

router.beforeEach((to, from, next) => {
  // ...
})

Global before guards are called in creation order, whenever a navigation is triggered. Guards may be resolved asynchronously, and the navigation is considered pending before all hooks have been resolved.

Every guard function receives three arguments:

  • to: Route: the target Route Object being navigated to.

  • from: Route: the current route being navigated away from.

  • next: Function: this function must be called to resolve the hook. The action depends on the arguments provided to next:

    • next(): move on to the next hook in the pipeline. If no hooks are left, the navigation is confirmed.

    • next(false): abort the current navigation. If the browser URL was changed (either manually by the user or via back button), it will be reset to that of the from route.

    • next('/') or next({ path: '/' }): redirect to a different location. The current navigation will be aborted and a new one will be started.

    • next(error): (2.4.0+) if the argument passed to next is an instance of Error, the navigation will be aborted and the error will be passed to callbacks registered via router.onError().

Make sure to always call the next function, otherwise the hook will never be resolved.

Global Resolve Guards

New in 2.5.0

In 2.5.0+ you can register a global guard with router.beforeResolve. This is similar to router.beforeEach, with the difference that resolve guards will be called right before the navigation is confirmed, after all in-component guards and async route components are resolved.

Global After Hooks

You can also register global after hooks, however unlike guards, these hooks do not get a next function and cannot affect the navigation:

router.afterEach((to, from) => {
  // ...
})

Per-Route Guard

You can define beforeEnter guards directly on a route's configuration object:

const router = new VueRouter({
  routes: [
    {
      path: '/foo',
      component: Foo,
      beforeEnter: (to, from, next) => {
        // ...
      }
    }
  ]
})

These guards have the exact same signature as global before guards.

In-Component Guards

Finally, you can directly define route navigation guards inside route components (the ones passed to the router configuration) with the following options:

  • beforeRouteEnter
  • beforeRouteUpdate (added in 2.2+)
  • beforeRouteLeave
const Foo = {
  template: `...`,
  beforeRouteEnter (to, from, next) {
    // called before the route that renders this component is confirmed.
    // does NOT have access to `this` component instance,
    // because it has not been created yet when this guard is called!
  },
  beforeRouteUpdate (to, from, next) {
    // called when the route that renders this component has changed,
    // but this component is reused in the new route.
    // For example, for a route with dynamic params `/foo/:id`, when we
    // navigate between `/foo/1` and `/foo/2`, the same `Foo` component instance
    // will be reused, and this hook will be called when that happens.
    // has access to `this` component instance.
  },
  beforeRouteLeave (to, from, next) {
    // called when the route that renders this component is about to
    // be navigated away from.
    // has access to `this` component instance.
  }
}

The beforeRouteEnter guard does NOT have access to this, because the guard is called before the navigation is confirmed, thus the new entering component has not even been created yet.

However, you can access the instance by passing a callback to next. The callback will be called when the navigation is confirmed, and the component instance will be passed to the callback as the argument:

beforeRouteEnter (to, from, next) {
  next(vm => {
    // access to component instance via `vm`
  })
}

You can directly access this inside beforeRouteLeave. The leave guard is usually used to prevent the user from accidentally leaving the route with unsaved edits. The navigation can be canceled by calling next(false).

The Full Navigation Resolution Flow

  1. Navigation triggered.
  2. Call leave guards in deactivated components.
  3. Call global beforeEach guards.
  4. Call beforeRouteUpdate guards in reused components (2.2+).
  5. Call beforeEnter in route configs.
  6. Resolve async route components.
  7. Call beforeRouteEnter in activated components.
  8. Call global beforeResolve guards (2.5+).
  9. Navigation confirmed.
  10. Call global afterEach hooks.
  11. DOM updates triggered.
  12. Call callbacks passed to next in beforeRouteEnter guards with instantiated instances.

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